Thursday, July 13, 2017

The Dukeries and Fox Hunting.

Above: Charles William Sydney Pierrepont, 4th Earl Manvers (1854 – 1926) was Master of the Rufford Hounds. Pictured here with his huntsman outside Thoresby Hall as everyone indulges in a well-fuelled hunt breakfast.

Fox hunting, as one would recognise it today, really began in the 18th century. Previous to that, deer had been the hunter’s choice of animal, but this started to change after the first of the Inclosure Acts in 1750 which resulted in open lands being sectioned into farmable fields and the deer population going into decline. At that point foxes and hare became the target. Fox hunting was never truly about the cull. As any gamekeeper will tell you a fox is a creature of exacting habits, taking the same routes every night at almost exactly the same times. So, if you do have a problem with a fox, it would be very easy to locate and shoot. No indeed, fox hunting was all about pomp and circumstance, an excuse for the Dukes and Lords to don their bright red finery, mount their thoroughbred horses, and follow their equally well bred packs of hounds across their vast estates, exhibiting as they did so just how wealthy and powerful they were. In the evening there would be an equally lavish ball, a banquet with tables well stocked with game from the Duke’s estate.

It is for this very reason, wanting to impress and display one’s wealth and social position, that the hunt became a favoured subject when commissioning artworks. Such paintings would have pride of place within the great halls, and on occasion hung in notable galleries in London. To reach an even wider audience, engravings would be made from the original artwork and mass produced for circulation. One such example is the above print from Tilleman’s painting of 1725, depicting the 2nd Duke of Kingston, with the original Thoresby Hall and his impressive estate in the background. (See the painting itself on THIS LINK).

Another fine painting (below) which was shown in the Academy of 1789, is F. Wheatley’s “Portrait of a Nobleman returning from Shooting". It depicts Henry Pelham Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, and his shooting party, with the Clumber spaniels and, beyond the bridge, Clumber House in the background. Painted in 1788 it received the mass-produced engraving treatment in 1803.

Above: The Guy Marson painting of a 1959 hunt gathering outside Thoresby Hall, also received the mass-production treatment. I well remember a colour print of this hanging in our family home when I lived on Thoresby Estate. The original hangs today (2017) in Perlethorpe Social Club. (For more on Guy Marson see THIS LINK).

Above: “Black Prince”, inside the stables at Thoresby Courtyard, Thoresby Hall. This was a favoured horse of Sydney William Herbert Pierrepont, 3rd Earl Manvers (1826 - 1900), himself a onetime Captain in the South Nottinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry.

Today: In November 2004 a free vote in the House of Commons made "hunting wild mammals with a dog" unlawful in England and Wales from February 2005. Since The Hunting Act 2004 was passed several previous hunt organizations have gone on to perform displays of jumping and cross country riding with hounds within the Dukeries area. It remains a controversial subject.

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Tuesday, November 24, 2015

The Dukeries cigarette / trading cards.

Starting in 1880s America, trading cards, given free inside a variety of products, were a very successful promotional device. Indeed, so successful when included in packets of cigarettes that they became known as Cigarette Cards. These cards with a Dukeries link, are from a large series depicting stately homes across the UK. Cigarette cards were discontinued during World War 2 to save paper, and never fully recovered their popularity after that.

Below: The back of the Thoresby Park card.

Above card: Not named on the card, this is Worksop Manor.

For more information about these individual places click on the links: Clumber, Rufford, Thoresby, Welbeck, Worksop.

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Monday, November 02, 2015

Thoresby Hall and Charles Dickens.

In 1999, Thoresby Hall was chosen as a suitable location for a BBC production of Charles Dickens' "Great Expectations". In that excellent version of the classic novel Thoresby Hall became Satis House. Miss Havisham's room was the former Ante Room (also known as the Small bar), whilst her famous deserted wedding banquet was set up in the Blue Drawing Room (also known as the A La Carte Restaurant). Much use was made of the echoing corridors, and the library doors are also clearly visible on the above compilation of clips. Below: Stills from the film.

To understand how Thoresby Hall had fallen into such a poor state of repair by 1999 see THIS LINK.

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Sunday, October 25, 2015

Thoresby Hall 1950s / 1960s souvenir brochure.

Thoresby Hall opened its doors to the public in 1957. If you were a visitor in the late 1950s / early 1960s, this would have been the souvenir brochure you could purchase for two shillings and sixpence (12.5p). The cover features a water colour painting by Lady Manvers of the Hall itself, whilst the black and white photographs inside depict different rooms. I think it is the first such brochure the Hall produced, so have chosen a few which might be of historical interest.

Above: View from Thoresby Hall first floor showing the one time direct route to The Kennels where the Duke's hounds were kept in decades past, and visible here on the horizon.

 Above: The Library. Below: The Small Drawing Room. Guests of the hotel can still access these today and make comparisons.

 Above: The South Terrace Garden.
Above: The Library and The Great Hall.

You can read about the model steam railway which operated at Thoresby Hall in the 1950s / 60s on THIS LINK, and more information and pictures of Thoresby Hall interior on THIS LINK.

For information about how and when Thoresby Hall became closed to the public see THIS LINK.

Also, see how the BBC used Thoresby Hall as Miss Havisham's "Satis House" when filming Dickens' "Great Expectations" on THIS LINK.

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Monday, September 07, 2015

Lady Rozelle Raynes 1925 - 2015.

Lady Frederica Rozelle Ridgway Pierrepont would have been 15 years old when, in 1940, her father became the 6th Earl Manvers (succeeding his cousin) and took up residence in Thoresby Hall. She was the youngest of three children but the only one to survive to adulthood.

Soon after the family moved into the Hall it was requisitioned by the military, bringing her into close contact with the armed forces. As a small child she had been fascinated by the sea, and the Second World War presented an opportunity to join the WRNS as a tugboat stoker. (Much preferable in her eyes to a finishing school in Switzerland). She would recall those times as being a “peak of happiness”, and burst into tears upon being demobbed when the war was over.

But her sailing days had really only just begun, and subsequent adventures on her 25ft yacht the Martha McGilda provided ample material to fill a series of self-penned books. In 1953 she married Major Alexander Beattie of the Coldstream Guards. Whilst her mother continued to reside at Thoresby Hall, Lady Rozelle inherited the place in 1955 when her father died. Thoresby Hall was opened up to the public in 1957 (see THIS LINK), and first husband Major Beattie was much involved in it becoming a popular attraction during a decade when visits to stately homes became a favourite national pastime (see first Thoresby Hall souvenir brochure on THIS LINK). However, the marriage ended in 1961.

In 1965 Lady Rozelle married Dr Richard Raynes. In the mid-1970s, with the support of husband Dr Raynes, she embarked on a scheme to help rehabilitate East End boys in care. This involved taking them out on the Thames in the Martha McGilda, half a day every fortnight, and teaching them to sail and navigate. These “Tuesday Boys” became the subject of a subsequent book, and in 1980 she established the Martha McGilda charitable trust so as this successful scheme of support for such boys might continue.

After Thoresby Hall was sold to the National Coal Board in 1984 (see THIS LINK), the estate would be managed mostly by agents, but Lady Rozelle still became lifelong friends with many of the people living and working there, in particular, the Courtyard Gallery where her mother’s paintings enjoy a constant presence (see THIS LINK). In the 1980s she and her husband had a house built on the estate, and moved there in 2010 after suffering a fall and could no longer manage to reside in London. Lady Rozelle died June 22nd 2015, a year after her husband. They left no descendants.

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Sunday, June 21, 2015

Thoresby Estate Hayride, June 2015, naming the historic sites along the way.

The Thoresby Estate Hayride does not always take exactly the same route every year. This video shows the route taken on June 2015, and names the places of historic interest along the way: Home Farm, Perlethorpe Village Hall, Radleys Lane, The Kennels, Whitemoor Farm, Whitemoor House, Whitewater, Whitewater Lane, Druids Grove, Buck Gates, White Lodge (a.k.a. Proteus Lodge, once home to Lady Sybil Pierrepont), Henry's Grove, Charles Wood, the original carriageway the Dukes took from the first Thoresby Hall to Ollerton and Newark beyond, Chestnut Avenue (a favourite place of the late Lady Manvers), Nelson's Grove, Icehouse Wood, Three Gables, The Woodyard, and Perlethorpe Church.

NOTE: I make no apology for the camera shake. Such is the character of a fun Hayride, and I wanted to preserve that.

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Friday, May 22, 2015

Perlethorpe Environmental Education Centre / former Perlethorpe Primary School.

The above photographs were taken on 21st May, 2015. It appears to be renovations to the roof only, and I do hope this fine old building isn't affected by the subsidence which has caused some problems recently with Perlethorpe Church on the opposite side of the road.

You can read more about the history of Perlethorpe school / Perlethorpe Environmental Education Centre, on the following links:

 Perlethorpe School
Perlethorpe School teachers
 Perlethorpe School c.1953 / 54
 Perlethorpe School (Environmental Education Centre).

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Tuesday, July 08, 2014

Rufford Abbey.

Although frequently grouped along with Worksop, Welbeck, Clumber and Thoresby, Rufford was never actually a ducal seat. It gets classed as a Dukeries property because of its geographic location and family links.

Before the Norman Conquest, Rufford was the property of the Saxon Lord, Ulf. William the Conqueror gave the land over to Gilbert de Gand. His successor (also a Gilbert), founded a Cistercian abbey there in 1148. The English Pope, Adrian IV gave the blessing for the abbey in 1156, after which the villagers of surrounding Grimston, Cratley, Inkersall, and Rufford itself were evacuated to make way for the expanding abbey grounds.

In 1538 the abbey was dissolved after two agents for of the Crown, sent specifically for the purpose, brought dubious charges against Thomas Doncaster the seventh abbott. The only part of the abbey which remains today (2014) is the crypt, which later became the servants’ quarters, and the adjoining cellars.
 After the dissolution the remains of the abbey, its grounds and three water mills, soon passed to George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury in an exchange with the Crown for castles and properties in Ireland. When George’s grandson the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury married Bess of Hardwick the link between Rufford and the emerging “Dukeries” was forever sealed.
Starting in 1560 the old monastic buildings were gradually converted into a house. In 1626 Mary Talbot, daughter of the 6th Earl, inherited the estate which then passed to her husband upon her marriage to George Saville in 1590. The Savile family and their descendants would make it their home. Notable additions to the building were to be a new north wing in 1679, with reception rooms and a long gallery, and a large stable block. The property continued to be a family home to the Savile’s until 1938 when the third Baron Savile inherited the estate as a 12 year old minor and his trustees divided the property into lots for auction.

During Word War 2, in November 1941, the 144th Regiment RAC was formed at Rufford Abbey with the intention of converting the 8th East Lancashires infantry unit into an armoured tank division. Lt-Col S.T. James was the commanding officer. I can also verify, due to the fact my father was one such soldier stationed there, that they received a visit from a not too healthy looking King George 6th, apparently reduced to wearing a degree of make-up in order to compensate for his sickly appearance.

You can read more about The Dukeries on these links: Welbeck, Thoresby, Worksop, and Clumber, and more about Bess of Hardwick and her role in the formation of the Dukeries on THIS LINK. And more about World War 2 and the Dukeries on THIS LINK.

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Friday, July 04, 2014

Cockglode, Ollerton, Thoresby Estate.

How Cockglode, Ollerton, became a part of Thoresby Estate, the Dukeries:

Cockglode Wood was an ancient woodland which became a part of the Royal Hunting Forest of Sherwood. The Ranger’s Lodge for the officer responsible for monitoring Birkland and Bilhaugh woods probably stood here. In 1818 Cockglode became the property of the 4th Duke of Portland in an exchange of properties with the Crown. The Duke gave the Crown a wealthy residential area to the west of London, including the responsibility of St. Mary-le-bone church, and was given Cockglode in return. However, not long after that the Duke exchanged Cockglode with the 2nd Earl Manvers for properties at Cuckney and Holbeck Woodhouse, closer to his own ducal seat at Welbeck. In that way Cockglode became part of Thoresby Estate.

Cockglode Hall / Cockglode House.

In 1776 The Duke of Portland granted lease of the premises at Cockglode to George Aldrich MD. As the Duke didn’t actually own the site at that point one assumes he was acting on behalf of the Crown and responsible for managing it. George Aldrich is credited as having the “elegant house” built in c.1774, and landscaping the surrounding woodland visible to the house which stood on a rise. Note: I am aware those dates do seem to conflict, albeit taken from two old, respected published sources. I offer them in good faith for the speculation of future researchers.
Above: Cockglode Hall and Cockglode House. The latter looks like a possible extension of the former.

 Dr George Aldrich lived here until 1797. It then became the residence of Sir Robert Shore Milnes, who died in 1837. The next tenant was the Hon. Savile Henry Lumley, a son of Richard, 4th Earl of Scarborough. Colonel Lumley died in 1846, and was buried at Edwinstowe. His widow remained tenant of Cockglode until her death in 1869.

The house then passed to Cecil George Savile Foljambe Esq., M.P. for North Nottinghamshire at the time. Foljambe pursued a successful political career, eventually becoming Earl of Liverpool, and lived at Cockglode for twenty eight years until 1897.

Above: Early 20th century postcard showing "Breakheart Hill" and "Entrance to Cockglode, Ollerton".

Lady Maude Hoare.

In 1878 Lord Beauchamp married Lady Emily Pierrepont, daughter of the 3rd Earl Manvers and Georgiana Jane E. Fanny de Franquetot, at Perlethorpe Church, Thoresby. They had four children. Amongst them, Lady Maud Lygon (1882 – 1962). This makes Maud the granddaughter of the 3rd Earl Manvers, and she later became Lady Maud Hoare through marriage. Residents of Cockglode House in the 1940s were always told Lady Maude had once lived there, she being something of a celebrity by that time. There is 1926 Pathe News footage of Lady Maude christening a flight of five bi-plane airliners, and 1937 footage of her launching the Arc Royal at Birkenhead. As the wife of Sir Samuel Hoare, British Air Minister, she made a 12,000-mile round trip flight inaugurating the London-Cairo-Delhi air service. The first woman ever to fly so many miles, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE).

 During the post-war years of 1946 / 1949, when a declining Cockglode House had been divided into eight flats, my father and mother rented rooms therein. They were told Lady Maude once lived at the property, which at that time would have been exciting news indeed. I have not been able to corroborate this information, but the proven Perlethorpe / Pierrepont / Manvers connection gives it credibility.

UPDATE: My thanks to David Howse for informing me of a 1932 newspaper article which supports the fact Lady Maude did indeed for a time at Cockglode House.

 Cockglode’s final days, and the planting of Rotary Wood.

During the 1940s, Cockglode House consisted of eight flats, two each side of a central front door, the other four accessed by the stone staircase. Each flat typically comprised two bedrooms, a sitting room, a kitchen, and pantry. The bathroom was shared. The rent was collected by Miss Freeman who came over from an office on Fourth Avenue, Edwinstowe. (That office was sited where currently stands P G Lock the Butchers, and incorporates the date 1933 in its brickwork). Cockglode resident Mavis Craig took over the rent collection chores in return for free rent. The pictures below show her eldest daughter in the garden at Cockglode c.1949.

 Above: The "garden" at Cockglode House c.1949, showing the road at the rear. The woman standing is Enid Rogers, holding Janice. The child on the floor is Christine Craig.

As the 1940s came to an end, and Thoresby Colliery drew ever closer, Cocklglode’s better days were far behind it. The above photographs reveal little, but it is said the rhododendrons which persist in the woods to this day originate from Cockglode's gardens. The spoils from Thoresby Colliery have long since covered the ruins of Cockglode House. However, in 1998, trees were planted across the restored tip of Thoresby Colliery in celebration of the Millennium. This was carried out by a group of local Rotary Clubs, hence the new name of Rotary Wood.

Above: Entrance to and view from "Cockglode and Rotary Woods", 2013.

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Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Worksop, the Dukeries.

Following the Norman Conquest the land of Saxon Lord Elsi, son of Cauchin, was given to Roger de Busli, friend of William the Conqueror. He was succeeded by William de Lovetot who in 1103 granted the money for the building of an Augustinian Priory. The Lovetot family line would end with female heiress Matilda. Richard 1st selected her husband as Gerald de Furnival. That family line also ended with the female heiress Joan, who married Sir Thomas Neville, making him Lord Furnival. But again, in the absence of a son, the title passed via marriage to Sir John Talbot. At the time of Henry 6th Talbot was the most famous commander in England, fighting against Joan of Arc, and becoming 1st Earl of Shrewsbury in 1442.

The 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, George, and more especially his son Francis, the 5th Earl, befitted much by supporting Henry 8th in his dissolution of the monasteries. In 1537, when Shrewsbury’s Irish estates were passed to the crown, Henry 8th granted him the site of Rufford and other lands made vacant by the dissolution too numerous to list here. In November 1539, the King's Commissioner brought the order for closure of the Worksop Priory to the Gatehouse. More than two thousand acres of land and properties were taken by the crown and several buildings ordered to be pulled down. A significant portion of these lands, including Worksop Priory and the site of Rufford, went to the Earl of Shrewsbury on condition that persons inheriting the title Lord of the Manor of Worksop would provide a fine glove for each King or Queen at their Coronation. This tradition continued into the 1950s. The people of Worksop were permitted to keep the nave of the original building and use it as the parish church, whereupon the gatehouse became the vicarage.

Above: Worksop Priory gatehouse and the ruins of the original Priory.

How the marriage of 6th Earl of Shrewsbury to Bess of Hardwick in 1567 would result in the formation of The Dukeries is explained on THIS POST.

George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, was entrusted with the custody of Mary Queen of Scots. She was moved around between various locations (though apparently not allowed to walk even escorted in Sherwood Forest), and in 1583 she was brought to Worksop Manor. There would be several plots to put Mary on the throne. For example, Thomas Howard 4th Earl of Norfolk even proposed to her, the result being a trial Shrewsbury presided over and subsequent to which Howard was hung drawn and quartered. Although the relationship between Mary and her custodians had been mostly amicable, the demands on Shrewsbury’s finances began to take a toll. An unpopular marriage between Bess’s daughter and the Earl of Lennox at Rufford, which potentially changed the succession to the throne, caused further upset with both Queen Elizabeth 1st and Mary herself.

Whilst Bess’s independent wealth meant she could move freely between her other properties at Chatsworth and Hardwick, continuing to expand her estates, George’s supervision of Mary meant he could not. So, as Bess closed her doors to him, George, as if in defiance of his financial state, built a grand new house at Worksop. Designed by Robert Smythson, constructed 1580 – 85, this is where Mary Queen of Scots was visited by the Earl of Rutland, the catholic brother of Shrewsbury’s first wife, resulting in Shrewsbury being relieved of his custodial duties. Three years later, as conspiracies to free Mary continued, a tearful Shrewsbury was required to preside over her execution from a nearby seat on the scaffold.

Above: Worksop Manor designed by Robert Smythson.

At the end of the 17th century Worksop manor moved by marriage to the Duke of Norfolk. During the 18th Century both the 8th and 9th Dukes made grand extensions to the 16th century manor house. The only rooms left undisturbed were Mary Queen of Scots one time chambers. However, in 1761 everything burned down. Almost immediately the 9th Duke commissioned James Paine to design a new building, with input from the Duchess. Only the north wing was ever completed. Work was stopped in 1767 when the Duke and Duchess never seemed to recover from the death of a nephew.

Above: Worksop Manor as designed by James Paine, but never completed.

Neither the 10th nor 11th Dukes cared to live at Worksop. The 12th Duke of Norfolk gave the manor to his son the Earl of Surrey, by which time it showed signs of neglect. So in 1838 he sold it on to the Duke of Newcastle from Clumber. The latter owner literally attempted to blow it up, after selling various fixtures and lead to builders and many trees to the railway companies. He never regained his losses. Years later those parts of the building which had survived were developed into a new mansion to become the residence of Lord Foley. A large part of the estate was sold at auction in 1890 to Sir John Robinson, a Nottingham businessman. He felled and sold many of the estate’s ancient trees. During the 20th century the estate has been Worksop Manor Stud Farm, breeding thoroughbred horses.

Above: Worksop Manor House 19th century engraving.

You can read more about the first Thoresby Hall, the Dukeries, on THIS LINK, and more about Bess of Hardwick's role in the formation of the Dukeries on THIS LINK. Also Welbeck, the Dukeries, on THIS LINK and Clumber Park, the Dukeries, on THIS LINK.

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